Page 13 - A True Gospel Chronology from the Crucifixion to the Resurrection
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 Notice that in the quote above it says, "part of a day is at times reckoned as one day." This means that there were specific circumstances in which it was used.
The above quote shows us that in the case of mourning, circumcision and the breaking of a vow, they would sometimes count a partial day as the whole day, depending on the circumstances.
The Encyclopedia Judaica does not list Onah in their Jewish words or ideas. The fact that it does not warrant its own section, tells us that it was not a major part of their life and practice. It only warrants a paragraph under the section on Day. But we can see from this, at least the concept was known, although we can't tell if this was a practice in the first century or not.
What about the period of a woman's uncleanness? For this, we'll have to go to the Talmud. There is one writer who seems to be quoted most often, when addressing this issue from the Talmud, John Lightfoot. Lightfoot says,
Weigh well that which is disputed in the tract Schabbath, concerning the uncleanness of a woman for three days; where many things are discussed by the Gemarists concerning the computation of this space of three days. Among other things these words occur; "R. Ismael saith, Sometimes it contains four Onoth, sometimes five, sometimes six. But how much is the space of an Onah? R. Jochanan saith either a day or a night." And so also the Jerusalem Talmud; "R. Akiba fixed a day for an Onah, and a night for an Onah: but the tradition is, that R. Eliezar Ben Azariah said, A day and a night make an Onah, and a part of an Onah is as the whole." And a little after, R. Ismael computeth a part of the Onah for the whole.
What might get lost in all this, is the topic at hand before these rabbis. It is "concerning the uncleanness of a woman." As stated earlier, the application of the Onah was not done in every aspect of Jewish life. It was only calculated in very specific situations, as mentioned above. We also should note that even the rabbis couldn't agree on the duration of an Onah.
We can see the practice of counting the Onah existed within the culture of the Jewish community during the period of the rabbinic rule, i.e., post AD 70. In the

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